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                                                                       DICTIONARY OF IMPORTANT SANSKRIT WORDS



(Nearest scientific meaning of Sanskrit words)

Aap = (1) Water, (Urdu word Aab). (2) Varuna = Water. One of the 5 basic body element.

Abhaya span> = Fearlessness, Freedom from all fears, worries and tensions. Yoga study leads to this mental freedom. It is called Nirvana or Moksha.

Abhyasa = Study, practice, repeated attempts to memorize a verse (Manan) or a sentence; or to master some skill, e.g. constant practice of hitting a ball or shooting a target by arrows or bullets.

AAgna Chakra = A Chakra located between eye brows. Ability of giving commandments or orders, like a commander of army,  a boss in a shop, a king making rules in a country, or a religious leader giving commandments and sermons.

Agni  = (1) Fire, heat; (2) One of the 5 basic elements which make all gross bodies- living and non-living.

Agyan = Ignorance, lack of information.

Ahamkara = 1st person singular pronoun, Ego filled Self, or Consciousness. 

Ahimsa = Non violence, Non injury; It is not a negative commandment in Eastern religions but has a positive aspect of universal love, brotherhood and friendship.

Akasha = Sky, Infinite 3D space. One of the 5 basic elements of gross body.

Akshara = (1) Alphabets; (2) Imperishable, immutable, permanent, immortal, eternal, changeless truth, indestructible. Soul is described in this manner.

Ananda = Joy, blissful state of mind. Joy of learning, Joy of eating, Joy of sex, Joy of victory, etc. Joy and happiness are different states of Mind. Happiness is at material level, Joy occurs at spiritual level by getting the results of deeds (Karma) done.

Apana Vayu = Exhaled air. Some Yoga books describe Apana as intestinal gases passed out from anus with the act of excretion of stool.

Aparigraha = No greed (Lobha), not grabbing others things. Freedom from desires of collecting great wealth and estates, kingdoms, by immoral means, etc.

Artha = (1) Money; (2) Desire; (3) Meaning, sense,(4)  purpose, (5) Aim or goal.

Asanas = Static postural poses and exercises. 3rd step of Raj Yoga.

Asat = False, untrue, transient, Non-existent, unreal; opposite of Sat or truth.

Asmita = Egotism, self-esteem, consciousness of one's presence.

Asteye  = A religious commandment in all religions. No thefts, no stealing. It has a positive aspect of remembering and returning the debts to creditors. Children are ever indebted to parents and teachers. They must remember and return the debts of parents by caring for and serving them in old age with respect, love and a sense of gratitude. (2) Sub-step of Yama, the 1st step of Raj Yoga.

Atma = Used in many different meanings.

(1). Self; This is correct translation of Vedic word 'Atma'; not soul or spirit.

(2). Manifest Soul. Any living being; one living individual (Vyakti).

(3). Brahaman. Soul or pure spirit. Soul is the pure and undying innermost life element. One has to unfold and understand it by deep meditation. A soul cannot exist without body, and body becomes a 'dead body' without soul.

Atma Gyana = Knowledge of one's true inner most self, which is pure Spirit or Bhraman. Self knowledge.

Avidya = Wrong teaching or information, Incorrect knowledge, wrong beliefs and false opinions. Most people live with Avidya in religious and many other fields. True (spiritual) enlightenment comes by correct knowledge. (Agyana and Avidya are quite different words. A child is ignorant about laws, but most adults are misinformed about religion. It is difficult to remove Avidya, but easy to remove Agyana).

Bandhas = Fixing and controlling inner organs by fixed body postures.

Bhakti = Surrender, sacrifices and devotion to duty, God, or religious beliefs.

Bhava = Moods, emotional states of mind resulting from happy and unhappy events and situations occurring in daily life. Spiritual Trance like state.

Bhaya = Fear, worries. Opposite word is - Abhaya. Yoga removes Bhaya.

Bhoo = Earth. One of the 5 basic element of gross body.

Bhoomi = Land, country. (Matru bhoomi = mother land).

Bija = Seed, sperm or ovum.

Bindu = A drop, a small particle, a point, a grain.

Braham Vidya = Knowledge of living beings and Spirit. Biology. Spiritual knowledge.

Brahama = Imaginary (mythological) creator God of life on earth. Totality of all spirits in plants and animals.

Brahaman = Atma, Spirit, soul, Chetana, Jiva, Bios, nameless 'that' (Tat).

Brahamchari         = One who travels for spiritual quest. "Brahmaya Charati eeti Brahamchari". By traditional usage this word means a boy or a girl who has not done sex act during life, a perfectly chaste person, Virgin girl,  a celibate individual.

Brahmcharyam = Chastity in life, no sex at all, celibacy. A Sub-step of Yama, the 1st step of Raj Yoga.

Brahmin.= (1) A man in the highest class in the four class system of Manu. (2) One who knows 'Brahman' or soul is a Brahmin.

Buddha = A wise and intelligent man, spiritually enlightened and evolved soul.

Buddhi = Discriminative ability, common sense, logic, reason, intellect.

Chakra = Literally a wheel or a circle. Various nerves (Nadies) and plexuses located in spinal cord and brain.

Chakshu = Eyes. Divya Chakshu = divine eye of mind or pure intellect.

Chandra = Moon. Symbolic 3rd eye of Lord Shiva = sharp time sense.

Chintan = Meditation: One pointed thinking, about an event or an object. In Yoga meditation the object and subject of thinking is one's own self. One gradually understands the ever changing desires in mind, the different organs of perishable body (Kshara sharira) and eternal imperishable (Akshara) soul. The bondage of time and place, inter-play of emotions, intellect, desires and actions are related to body. Thinking about anything with perfect sense of time and place (Chitta) is meditation or Chintan.

Chitta = Sub conscious mind. Most Yoga books and Gurus translate this word as pure intellect, consciousness, thoughts, perception etc.,. Memories of past events and experiences are stored in Chitta as knowledge. Chitta, according to Yoga books is totality of ego- consciousness made up by (1) mind and its ability of attention, selection, and rejection, (2) ability of reason (Buddhi) and (3) ability of correct decision making. Chitta experiences joys and sorrows.

Darshana = Literal meaning Seeing; Vision, observing- thinking and understanding, the cause of the effects seen. Hinduism has 6 main Darshans, (scriptures of spiritual knowledge) viz., Poorva Mimansa by Jaimini, Nyaya Darshan by Gautama, Vaishashik Darshana by Kanad, YOGA DARSHANA by Patanjali, Sankhya Darshana by Kapil, and Vedanta Darshana by Ved-Vyasa. 

Desha = Place, country.

Dharana = Goals, dreams, visions, aims. The 6th step of Patanjali Yoga.

Dharma = This word is usually translated as Religion. But Dharma has many meanings. (1) Gunas or qualities in material objects. (2) Consciousness of 'moral duties'. (3) Sectarian religions (Sampradaya; = Some Past Prophets started religions) are also called Dharmas. Most people today know Dharma as tribal traditions, or secular groups of people following strictly scriptural commandments of the founders or prophets.

Dharma Kshatra = Field of religion; like field of medicine, economics, politics.

Dharma Shastra = A religious scripture.

Dhyana = Attention, fullest concentration in study or action; It is the 7th step of Patanjali Yoga. Complete awareness in the present place and the present time.

Dosha = Fault, mistake, sin, error etc.

Dukkha = (1) Unhappiness, (2) Pain, (3) Bad events in life.

Dwesha = Dislikes, hatred, animosity, (opposite of Raga = likes).

Eakagrata = Selecting one topic and giving it the top priority.

Gandha = Smell, fragrance.

Garbha = A fetus or an embryo in womb.

Guna = Quality, e.g. to burn is Guna of fire, to wet is Guna of water, sweetness is Guna of cane sugar, etc. Mother nature (Prakruti) has three Gunas, creation, maintenance, and destruction. There are three Gunas in all human beings viz., Sat, Rajas and Tamas. Pure soul is Guna-less (Nirguna) or Gunatit (Beyond Gunas).

Hath Yoga = Search of self by practicing penances and denials to comforts. Path of rigorous discipline and self control (Tapas), very popular in Jainism even today.

Indriyas = 5 organs of perception (Senses or Gyana Indriyas or eyes, ears, nose, skin and tongue as taste organ) and 5 organs of actions or (Karma Indriyas viz. Speech, hands, legs, excretions, & sex organs).

Ishvara = God or supreme being. One among many names of God. God's divine spark present in all living beings, located in heart, as A-V node and bundle of HIS. 

Ishvera Parinidhani = Total surrender to God or destined by God. All actions to be done as works of God. They are preservation of living creations, including animals and plants.

Jagruti = Awakened state, Awareness of surroundings. Life consciousness.

Japa = Repeated chanting of short prayer words (Mantras) or God's name.

Jignasa = Curiosity, questions. Brahm Jignasa = Questions about soul; Dharma Jignasa= To learn about religion, moral obligations, qualities of material objects etc.,.

Jijivisha = Instinct of survival, I want to live not to die. Basic instinct in all life.

Jitendriya = One who has conquered 5 senses and 5 organs of actions. The words Jain, Jainism come from this.

Jiva-Atma = Individual soul, a single living creature, or one human being, I or Self.

Kala = Time. Symbolized as Mystic Deity Shiva, with name Maha-Kaleshvara.

Kala Chakra = Wheel of time. Happy and unhappy situations are linked with body mind and intellect. They 'Come and Go' as the non stop wheel of time spins on and on.  Birth and Death are linked with the wheel of Universal TIME; only all pervading Pure soul is beyond the bondage of constantly revolving Kala Chakra.

Kama = Passions, sex urges, lust, desires, wants, hopes, expectations, ambitions, wishes etc.,. In a broad sense any ego centric sensual desire is called Kama or Vasana. This inner most enemy must be conquered first during the early steps of Yoga Sadhana.

Karma = Acts, deeds done by an individual under the drag of desires. Karma always bind all human beings.

Karya = Works done in the past, present, or planned projects of the future.

Krodha = Angers, restless mind, agitated mood. Roots from unsatisfied Kamas or desires.

Kumbha = A pot for storing water. Body filled with desires is symbolized as a pot.

Kumbhaka = Part of Pranayama. A respiratory exercise in which inspired air is with-held for a long time like water filled in a pot.

Kundalini = Susumna Nadi's - a sleeping serpent’s - head located in brain (Corpus Callosum). Frontal area of brain, three tense sense.

Kundalini power or shakti = Visualization in mind of past events, arranging them in chronological order, arriving at reasonable judgment. Then planning for future based upon experiences of past. Time-place awareness and order of priority and preference. Military generals like Napolion are examples of Kundalini Shakti in wars; successful business men running big enterprises, heads of states, successful detectives etc.

Lobha = Greed of money, political power and wealth.

Loma = Hair. Loma-Harsha = raising of body hairs during moments of extreme emotions.

Mada = False egos. Ahamkara.

Mahat Tatva = Refereed to as higher intellect, spirit and/or soul in Sankhya Darshan of Kapil.

Mamta = Sense of possessions or my-ness. A kind of ego-centric obsession. This is my son, wife, brother, my house, my country, my religion, Guru, etc.,

Mantra = Short prayer of words, a verse of devotional poetry.

Maya = Attachments to relatives, children, religion, sect, country, property, body etc.

Moha = Illusions and false attachments encircling intellect. A person in ‘Moha’ is not able to think and judge without bias and arrive to correct judgment.

Moksha = Freedom from sensual attachments and ego centric desires.

Moola = Root of a tree, foundation, base.

Nadi = Different Nerves described in Yoga books. Also means arteries and veins in anatomical terminology.

Nidra = Sleep. (Anidra = Insomnia or lack of sound sleep).

Nirvana = Blissful state, Moksha state or Kaivalya state of mind.

Niyama = Regularity, discipline, obedience, codes of proper conduct. 2nd step of Patanjali Yoga. Punctuality and observance of rules.

Nyaya = Justice. Another Darshana like Yoga in Indian Philosophy.

Om (AUM)  = Pranava or a long sound made by human phonatory system.

Pad = step, foot.

Padma = Lotus

Padmasana = A sitting meditation posture. Two feet crossed make a lotus like look.

Pancha Mahabhutas = 5 basic elements of gross body, namely earth, water, air, fire or light (energy) and Space (Akasha).

Pragna = Wisdom or perfect knowledge gained by self experience.

Praja = People, children and grand children

Prajapati = Creator, God of people and children (Parents). Imaginary God of Sex. Refereed to as 'Kamadev' in some scriptures.

Prakruti = Mother Nature; Universe; Inborn nature of any individual.

Prana = Spark of Life or spirit. Breathing activity.

Pranayamas = 4th step of Yoga. Regulation and control of respiration.

Pratyahara = 5th step of Yoga. Controlling sensual desires by will power.

Purusha = Literal meaning a male being. Used in different meaning in different Scriptures e.g., Supreme one God, perfect creator of mother nature, pure soul or spirit etc. This creates great confusions in minds of students of Gita and Yoga.

Purushartha = Efforts done to achieve four goals (Dharanas) in life. The 4 goals given to a Hindu are Dharma (Duties), Artha (money), Kama (Desires) and Moksha (liberty).

Rachaka = Withholding breath after exhaling in the Pranayama practice (See 4th step of Raj Yoga).

Ragas = Attachments to objects of temporary sensual pleasures, and joys. (Opp. word is Dwesha).

Raja = A king. A boss, a president, chairman etc., in present times. God is the king of this universe. Uniting with this King is Raj Yoga.

Rajas = One of the three Gunas of Prakruti. Actions done  with a desire or a definite purpose.

Rajasik = A quality of human nature (Svabhava) or Prakruti. A Rajasik person does activities for achieving dictating and commanding position in life.

Rasa = Taste. Six different tastes in foods like sweet, sour, salty, pungent, hot (Chilies) and bitter. Tongue gets attached to these in course of time.

Roop = Form, shape, beauty.

Rudra = Another name of Shiva = merciful God. Angry Shiva is called Rudra.

Sadhaka = Student of Yoga. Mumukshu, Shishya, Vidyarthi etc.,. are other words used for a student of Yoga. 

Sadhana = Practice, study, search and research.

Sakshi = A witness or a seer.

Samadhi = Thoughtless consciousness or awareness. The last, 8th step of Raj Yoga. The state of Nirvana or Moksha is reached by prophets like Jesus, Buddha, Mohammed who give religious commandments and sermons after self realization.

Sankhya = Number. An important Philosophy (Darshan), to be studied with Yoga.

Sanskara = Moral training given to children during childhood.

Sanskrit = An Ancient and very rich language of Aryans. Most Hindu scriptures are written in Sanskrit language.

Sanskruti = Culture: noble, moral or religious heritage.

Santosha = Satisfaction, contentment, compromising attitude.

Sanyamas.= Mental control or restrains, developed by Tapas, Good company, Yogas and Sanskaras.

Sat = truthfulness, true, real. One of three tree Gunas in human nature. Good qualities.

Satva = Pure essence, good qualities (Goona) in any human being. Sajjana = Gentle people.

Satyam = Truth or absolute changeless reality. e.g., God is truth. 

Shaastra = A book of science. (Puranas are books of mythology). Yoga is a Shaastra, not a Purana. Bhagavatum is a Purana which describes 10 major incarnations of Lord Vishnu a mythological deity of all gross matter seen in universe.

Shabda = Word. Speech and a language arises from Shabdas. All spoken words root from OM.

Shakti = Psychic power, mental strength, universal cosmic energy, also means Shiva’s cosmic Shakti.

Sharira = Physical gross body; also called 'Karana Sharira'; Karma are done by Sharira.

Shaucham = Cleanliness of body and mind and intellect. Sub-step of Niyama.

Shravan = Listening. Hearing with full attention (Dhyana) is listening.

Shri = Wealth, money, respect worthy, auspicious, gorgeous.

Shrotrum = Ears. Important sense organ of learning or gaining knowledge by hearing words.

Shruties = Audio knowledge. Another name of the earliest Hindu scriptures, the Vedas.

Shubha = Good, virtuous, benevolent, joy giving.

Shukra = Semen, Virile; Planet Venus. Shukracharya is a mystic character in Hindu Puranas who is able to bring life in dead bodies.

Shunya = Zero, Void.

Siddhas = Rishi; Famous person; Successful businessman; Sports champion, Film star; famous singer; noble politician; pious religious leader, celebrity.

Siddhis = Successes or victories.

Smruti = Memory, knowledge stored in brain. (Opposite Vismruti = loss of memory, Amnesia). A Hindu scripture of Manu Smruti (2500 BC) indicates duties and punishments for the four classes at different age periods for both the sexes. 

Sparsha = Touch sense. Ability of skin to perceive hot, cold, sharp, hard, soft etc.,.

Sthita Pragna = A man of firm judgment, wisdom and free from all attachments.

Surya = Sun. Pingla Nadi's other name is Surya Nadi.

Susupti avastha = Dreamless state of mind during sleep. Deep sleep. Sound sleep.

Swabhava = In born nature of an individual. (Human nature = Prakruti).

Swadhyaya = Self study, unfoldment of inner self (Anter Atma), soul or ATMAN.

Swapna avastha = Dreaming state of mind. During light sleep a person sees dreams.

Tamas = Darkness, ignorance; Inborn Guna of human nature. Our knowledge is very little in fact.

Tamasik = Quickly getting upset and angry type of personality. Does actions in ignorance.

Tapa = Penances done for purification of body, mind and intellect by strict restrains and discipline. This develops obedience, tolerance, endurance, austerities etc.

Tat = That. Nameless address to spirit or God.

Tatva = Essence of a thing or a short summary of a subject of study.

Tejus = Light, Luster, Brilliance, Glory.

Tratak = Glazing or fixing eyes at some object without blinking of eyelids.

Turya avastha = Thoughtless conscious state of Mind, very close to Samadi.

Tyagi = A man who has renounced wealth, high positions, political powers etc.

Upanishads = Spiritual Hindu scriptures dealing with the subject of soul, spirit and body, mind and self-search.

Uttama = Best, excellent, top most, highest.

Vac, Vacha = Speech, Act of speaking (One of the Karma Indriya, Vani).

Vairagi = Whose desires of wealth, power or position are satisfied and over.

Varuna = Deity God of water. Water is deity God near us. One of the 5 basic elements.

Vasana = Ego centric desires and passions. Kama is general term for all types of desires, hopes, wants wishes, ambitions, expectations etc.

Vasudev = Name of Lord Vishnu; Father of Krishna in Bhagavat stories. 5 basic elements make Vishnu's universal body. All forms of material bodies of plants and animals are also made up of these 5 basic elements.

Vayu = Air. One of the 5 basic elements of body and visible universe. A Deity God.

Vedanta = Literally means END of knowledge. It is one of the popular Darshan or Philosophy which is studied as supplement to Yoga. 

Vedas = Most ancient Hindu scriptures, books of knowledge. Also called Shruties because knowledge is revealed by speaking and preserved by listening and memorizing. 

Vibhooti = A person born with adversities, but achieves great heights in any field;  a great celebrity.

Vichara = Thought. Thoughts are mostly expressed by speech or writings.

Vidya = Knowledge, skill or technique learned by practice.

Vigyana = Science. The relationship between cause and effects are searched, studied and confirmed by intellect, reason and repeated self experiences.

Vishaya = Subject of study; 5 senses have 5 Vishayas, namely form, word, taste, touch and smell. A person gets attached to these Vishayas when objects make contact with 5 senses. By meditation one recognizes the attachments and tries to get liberated.

Vishnu = Puranic God of life preservation and visible material universe.

Viveka = Discrimination, reason, logic, judgment ability.

Vrutti = Desires, instincts which lead to do activities (Pravutti). Hunger, thirst, desire to pass urine, sex urge, are natural Vrutties. Greed of money, political power, material things etc., are un-natural desires, wants and wishes or Vasanas.

Vyadhi = Disease, illness, sickness.

Yagna = Sacrifice; A fire ritual of Hindus; Giving knowledge free is Gyana Yagna. Serving and helping others without expectation of rewards is Seva-Yagna.

Yama = An imaginary or mystic Deity God of death. The Supreme God's accountant for all people's good (Punya) and bad or evil deeds (sins). The 1st step of Raj Yoga starts with understanding of this deity.

Yoga = To Join; To meet; To unite, to get welded to; To marry, to remain in family and social bondage and cooperation etc. 



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